World's Famous Scientist


# Marie Curie



Name : Marie Curie

Born On : November 7, 1867

Died On : July 4, 1934

Place Of Birth : Warsaw, Poland

Life Span : 66 Years

Nationality : Polish-born French
INTRODUCTION

           Marie Curie, daughter of a secondary-school teacher, was a Polish-born French physicist. . She was born in Warsaw, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. Two obstacles which stood in Marie’s way were that her father had too little money to support her ambition to go to university and higher education was not available for girls in Poland. To overcome these obstacles she agreed to work as a tutor and children’s governess to support her family financially.

          She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris. She was famous for her work on radioactivity and was the first person and only woman to win twice. She is the only person who has ever won Nobel Prizes in both physics and chemistry. Marie Curie discovered two new chemical elements - radium and polonium. She named the first chemical element that she discovered - polonium, which she isolated in 1898 - after her native country She carried out the first research into the treatment of tumors with radiation, and she was the founder of the Curie Institutes, which are important medical research centers.

           Between 1898 and 1902, the Curies published, jointly or separately, a total of 32 scientific papers, including one that announced that, when exposed to radium, diseased, tumor-forming cells were destroyed faster than healthy cells. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz , France, due to aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation while carrying test tubes of radium in her pockets during research. In her last year, she worked on a book, Radioactivity, which was published posthumously in 1935.


IMPORTANT WRITINGS
  • Recherches sur les substances
  • radioactives
  • Autobiographical Notes: The Story of My Life
  • Radio-active substances
  • Die Entdeckung des Radiums
  • La radiologie et la guerre
  • Leçons de Marie Curie

IMPORTANT INVENTIONS :
  • Radium :
              Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive.

  • Polonium :
              Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84, which was discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Applications of polonium include heaters in space probes, antistatic devices and sources of neutrons and alpha particles.

-------- X --------