Founded By: Americans
Founded In: 1895
National Game of: Sri Lanka
Equipments Used: Net, Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams consisting 6 players each play in the ground separated by net. To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. The object of the game is to send the ball over the net so that the opposing team cannot return the ball. Each team tries to gain points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. Each team has three hits to attempt to return the ball. The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally push the ball with any part of the body. There are 5 positions filled on every volleyball team. The ball is spherical, made of leather or synthetic leather, and having a weight of 260–280 g.
Volleyball court is 18 meters long and 9 meters wide, divided into two 9 m × 9 m halves. The height clearance for indoor volleyball courts is 7 m. All matches have a 60-minute time limit for competitive volleyball. After 60 minutes the team scoring more points than opponent team wins. Volleyball is a national sport of Sri Lanka. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.
On February 9, 1895, in Massachusetts (USA), a physical education director William G. Morgan created a new game called Mintonette as a pastime to be played by any number of players. The game took some of its characteristics from tennis. Another indoor sport, basketball, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a 6 ft high net, a 25 ft × 50 feet court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, without limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of an error in serving the ball, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered as a foul. An observer named Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game when h saw the first exhibition match of volleyball in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game quickly became known as “volleyball”. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School. The first official ball used in volleyball was created in 1896.
In 1917, the game was changed from 21 points to 15 points. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. In 1920 a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established. The first World Championships of volleyball in Canada were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women. The sport became popular in Brazil, in Europe. Beach volleyball was a variation of the game played on sand with only two players in each team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the Summer Olympics of 1996.
RULES OF VOLLEYBALL
Rule 1 - the ball must be spherical, have a circumference of 65–67 cm, a weight of 260–280 g and an inside pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2.
Rule 2 - Team will rotate each time they win the serve.
Rule 3 - The ball can be only hit up to three times per side.
Rule 4 - A volleyball player can serve underhand or overhand, but can’t step over the end line until after contacting the ball.
Rule 5 - Game will be played to 25 points. A team must win by 2 points.
Rule 6 - A player must not block or attack a serve.
Rule 7 - Net height for men, co-ed mixed 6 is 2.43 meters.
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