Name of the Game – Cricket

Founded By – England

Founded In – 16th Century

National Game of – England

Equipments used – Bat, Ball, Stumps, Bails, Pads, Helmets.

          Cricket is a bat and ball game which is played between two teams. It the world’s second most popular sport after football. Each team has 11 players. Who play cricket on a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch which is present at the centre of the field. A cricket match is divided into periods called innings. During an innings one team bowls and fields and the other bats. A coin toss is held by the team captains just before the match starts: the winner decides whether to bat or field first. . The two teams switch between fielding and batting after each innings. All eleven members of the fielding team take the field, but only two members of the batting team are on the field at any given time.

          The cricket field is usually oval in shape. The edge of the playing field is marked with a boundary, which could be a fence or a rope .At each end of the pitch is a wooden target called a wicket. The pitch is marked with painted lines that are a bowling crease and a batting or popping crease. One team who bats, attempt to score runs, while the other team bowls and fields the ball, attempt to restrict the scoring and dismiss the batsmen. The objective of the game is for a team to score more runs than its opponent. The team who scores more runs wins.

History Of Cricket :

         Firstly cricket was described by a man named Estiavannet. He had written a letter to the King Louis XI in 1478 in which he described a game played by the villagers of France. The game was played with the help of ball and croquet. During the 17th century, numbers of references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity. A newspaper report survives of "a great cricket match" with eleven players a side that was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697. The game underwent major development in the 18th century and became the national sport of England.

         In the 1730s Frederick Prince of Wales played a major role in developing the sport. The Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s and, for the next 20 years until the formation of MCC Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket (lbw). The 19th century saw under-arm bowling replaced by first round-arm and then over arm. By the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in India, North America, the Caribbean, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In 1844, the first international cricket match took place between the United States and Canada.

         In 1862, an English team made the first tour of Australia and in 1876–77, an England team took part in the first-ever Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to The Ashes in 1882. The last two decades before the First World War have been called the "Golden Age of cricket". Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the West Indies, India, and New Zealand before the Second World War and then Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Cricket entered a new era in 1963 when English introduced the limited overs idea. The first Limited Overs International was played in 1971. The International Cricket Council (ICC) saw its potential and staged the first limited overs Cricket World Cup in 1975. In the 21st century, Twenty-20 match was introduced.

Types Of Cricket Matches

         Cricket has many formats. Types of cricket matches differ in time and overs. Some types them are:

First Class cricket - A first class cricket is of three or more days duration match between two teams of 11 players. The number of overs bowled in one day is 90.

Limited overs cricket - A limited over cricket consist of matches played between two teams in which each team faces 50 overs.

Twenty20 cricket - Twenty20 cricket consist of matches in which each team faces 20 overs. It was introduced by England Cricket Board to play inter country matches. This format is used in T20 world cup.

Rule of Cricket

         Rules of cricket are described by Marylebone Cricket Club to ensure fairness, discipline and uniformity. There are 42 laws at present. These rules outline all aspects of how the game is played, how a team wins a game, how a batsman is dismissed, how the pitch is to be prepared and maintained.

Some important rules:-

Rule 1: A cricket team consists of eleven players, including a captain.

Rule 2: In cricket, a substitute may be brought only if a player is injured. However a substitute may not bat, bowl, or act as wicket keeper or captain.

Rule 3: There are 2 umpires who make all important decision.

Rule 4: A cricket ball is between 8 13/16 and 9 inches in circumference, and weighs between 155.9g to 163g.

Rule 5: The bat is should be 38 inches in length, and 4.25 inches in width.

Rule 6: The pitch is a rectangular area of the ground 22 yards long and 10 ft wide.

Rule 7: The wicket consists of three wooden stumps that are 28 inches tall.

Rule 8: Each bowling crease should be 8 feet 8 inches (2.64 m) in length, centered on the middle stump at each.

Rule 9: A boundary is marked round the edge of the field of play. If the ball is hit into or past this boundary, four runs are scored, or six runs if the ball didn't hit the ground before crossing the boundary.

Rule 10: An over consists of six balls bowled, excluding wides and no balls

Rule 11: A ball is called wide when the bowler bowls a bouncer that goes over the head of the batsman or when the ball is goes outside the side crease.

Rule 12: If a ball that is not a no ball or wide passes the striker and runs are scored, they are called byes.

Rule 13: If a ball hits the bat or the hand holding the bat and is then caught by the opposition within the field of play before the ball bounces, then the batsman is out

Rule 14: If a batsman hits the ball twice, other than for the sole purpose of protecting his wicket or with the consent of the opposition, he is out.

Rule 15: If the ball hits the batsman without first hitting the bat, but would have hit the wicket if the batsman was not there, and the ball does not pitch on the leg side of the wicket, the batsman will be out.

Rule 16: The side which scores the most runs wins the match. If both sides score the same number of runs, the match is tied.

Rule 17: A batsman is out when the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is out of his crease and not attempting a run.

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